BS in Microbiology

Overview


Microbiology is emerging as the key biological science. This area is concerned with the physiology, biochemistry, molecular biology, ecology, biotechnology and uses of bacteria, fungi and viruses. Microorganisms provide the models used in molecular biology for research.  This research at the molecular level has provided, and continues to provide, the answers to numerous fundamental questions in genetics, metabolism and cell forms and functions.  There are growing recognitions of the potential of microorganisms in may applied areas.  The ability of microorganisms to decompose materials such as herbicides, pesticides, and oils in oil spills; the potential of microorganisms as food supplements; the exploitation of microbial activity to produce energy such as methane gas for rural consumption; and the potential of new therapeutic substances produced by microorganisms – these and other uses of microorganisms are becoming increasingly attractive.  Recombinant DNA technology, commonly referred as genetic engineering, is one of the principal thrusts of the emerging high technologies in the biological sciences.  Recombinant DNA technology makes it feasible to consider genetically manipulated microorganisms for commercial production of new and valuable products for a variety of purposes, e.g., medicinal, fuel, and food.

 

The Bachelor of Microbiology is a 4 years degree program.  The total credit offered is 133.  In this curriculum, principal emphasis is placed on understanding microorganisms and their interrelationships with other organisms in nature, the application of microbiology in health and medicine, environment, agriculture and industry, and the study of fundamental life processes as exemplified by microorganisms. Some fields of microbiology, especially advanced research, may require further training. Both the theoretical and practical skills needed for a career in modern microbiology and biotechnology will be given. Undergraduate work in the department is designed to provide sound preparation for graduate study, training for bachelors-level employment, and admission into graduate and postgraduate studies in universities in home and abroad.

Course Outline


Course Outline

Requirements for a FOUR YEAR Bachelor of Science degree in Microbiology:

Taught courses            : 84 Credits
GED courses                : 27 Credits
Open Elective               : 06 Credits
Laboratory                   : 16 Credits

Total                            : 133 Credits



1st Professional Year (30 Credits):

 Courses

Titles

Credits

 MIC 101

 Basic Microbiology I

3

 MIC 105

 Communication & Computer Application

3

 MIC109

 Laboratory I

3

 MIC 110

 Introduction to Biochemistry

3

 MIC 201

 Microbial Ecology

3

 MIC 202

 Basic techniques in Microbiology

3

 MIC 203

 Chemistry of Microorganisms

3

 ENG 102 or  ENG 103

 Introduction to Composition or
Intermediate Composition

3

 CHE 101

 General Chemistry

3

 BIO 103

 Biology I

3

 Total Credits

30




MIC101: Basic Microbiology  (3 Credits)

Important historical developments which led to the formulation of the germ theory of disease and those discoveries that lead to the development of the science of biotechnology; historical background of the classification of microorganisms, and the techniques used to categorize them; differences between the old five-kingdom system and the modern three-domain system; structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Bacterial growth curve- lag phase, exponential phase, stationary phase and death phase; archaeal diversity and life in extreme environment; survey of prokaryotic microorganisms with unusual characteristics; basic structure and characteristics of viruses, infection process with emphasis on animal viruses and bacteriophage; diversity and importance of eukaryotic microorganisms, namely protozoa, fungi and algae; nutritional requirement of microorgamisms and classification; cultivation of microorganisms in the laboratory.

 

MIC 105: Communication and computer Application (3 Credits)

The students in Computer and Communications will be using personal computers in their everyday activities and projects. This subject will be covering four major areas: Windows; Microsoft Office applications, the Internet (Search engine and Introduction to Bioinformatics), and Draw/Paint. The students will acquire the basics of the Windows system so that they will be able to navigate with ease through the various applications they will be using throughout their graduation. Microsoft Office contains word processing, spreadsheet, and presentation applications—software that will be critical for degree and career success. All the computers in the class have Internet access. For many of their projects, the students will be working in collaborative groups. Students will be working side-by-side to complete exercises and produce final projects. This course has been provided to student as GED course.

 

MIC109: Laboratory I (3 Credits)

The basic idea of a biochemistry and microbiology laboratory will be provided in this course. The students will get practical experiences on the detection of an unknown organic compound based on their physical and chemical properties. Emphasis will be given on the nature of different biochemical solution and how to prepare them accurately. Moreover students will also get basic idea how to detect specific organic compound present in biological sample. In the microbiology section the basic laboratory skill will be discussed and student will learn the basic techniques to detect and isolate microorganisms from food and water samples.

 

MIC110: Introductory to Biochemistry   (3 Credits)                                                      

This course introduces history, scope and future of Biochemistry and biotechnology. Students learn the basic logics of living organisms, the role of bio-molecules and their interrelationship. The course provides following introductory concepts: i) define and explain the basic concepts in biochemistry; ii) various biochemical pathways; iii) define the biological macromolecules and their subunits; iv) basic applied concepts in biochemistry to biotechnology; v) explain the underlying concepts in biotechnology; and vi) relate the biochemical properties and their principles as tools of biotechnology.

 

MIC201: Microbial Ecology (3 Credits)

Topics covered in this course are-Basic concept of Microbial Ecology, Microbial Evolution: Origin of life, chemical evolution, evolution of organelle, evolution of biochemical pathways. Biodiversity: Archae, Eukarya, Bacteria. Microbial interaction: Microbe-microbe interaction, Plant -Microbe interaction, Animal- Microbe Interaction. Quantitative ecology: Sample collection, processing and determination of microbial number and biomass. Microorganism on their natural habitat: Hydrosphere, Lithosphere and Atmosphere. Effect of physical factors on microorganisms . Biogeochemical cycles.

 

MIC202: Basic Techniques in Microbiology (3 Credits)

Microscope and Microscopy: Brightfield microscopy,  Darkfield microscopy, Phase contrast microscopy, Fluorescence microscopy, Electron microscopy, Preparation and staining of specimens for microscopy, Nutritional types of microorganisms, Physical requirements for microbial growth, Chemical requirements for microbial growth, Culture media: Chemically defined media, Complex media, Anaerobic growth media and methods, Selective and differential media, Enrichment culture, Isolation of pure cultures, Preservation of pure cultures, The growth of bacterial cultures, Direct measurement of microbial growth, Indirect measurement of microbial growth, The control of microbial growth: i) Physical methods , ii) Chemical methods

 

MIC203: Chemistry of Microorganisms  (3 Credits)

Biomolecules and Biopolymers - Structure and function of different macromolecules i.e. Nucleic acids, Proteins and Carbohydrates; Chemical composition and function of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cell walls and cell membranes; Chemical composition and function of capsules, slime layers, pili and fimbriae, cytoplasmic matrix, cilia, flagella, inclusion bodies and pigments; Structure of ribosomes and mechanism of protein synthesis in prokaryotic cells; Endospores- structure, biological function, mechanism of endospore formation and transformation into vegetative cell in prokaryotes; Antimicrobial agents and their mode of actions - i) Control of microorganisms by physical agents: Steam under pressure, Fractional sterilization, Boiling water method, Hot air sterilization, Incineration, Desiccation, Osmotic pressure, Radiations and Filtration.  ii) Control of microorganisms by chemical agents: Phenol and phenolic compounds, Alcohols, Halogens, Heavy metals and their compounds, Dyes, Detergents, Quaternary ammonium compounds, Aldehydes and Gaseous agents. iii) Antibiotics and their mode of actions. iv) Mechanisms of antibiotic   resistance in bacteria.

 

CHE101: General Chemistry  (3 Credits)

This course covers fundamental principles of chemistry. Topics include measurement, atomic and molecular structure, periodicity, chemical reactions, chemical bonding, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, Chemical Equilibrium and Kinetics, gas laws and solutions. This course is appropriate as a basic chemistry course or as a science elective for students who have science, engineering, or mathematics majors. Upon completion, students will be able to- Define chemistry as the study of matter, can apply the basic concepts in their future studies and apply safe laboratory skills to solve problems in a cooperative environment.

 

BIO103: Biology I  (3 Credits)

The objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of the major integrating concepts of biological science. Principle emphasis of the course will be on studying living organisms and processes. Upon completion, students will have basics concepts on what is life and characteristics of life, Proper definition of biology and its areas, Cells and cell division, Macromolecules and Nutrition,  Biological levels of organization, Human physiology concentration on major systems and diseases. This course is appropriate for non science students and also for those who do not have biology as major.

2nd Professional Year (30 Credits):

 

 Courses

 Titles 

Credits

 MIC 204

 Environmental Microbiology

3

 MIC 205

 Biostatistics

3

 MIC 206

 Microbial Taxonomy and Diversity

3

 MIC 207

 Microbial Physiology and Metabolism

3

 MIC 209

 Molecular Biology I

3

 MIC 211

 Laboratory II

3

 BBT 201

 Biophysical Chemistry

3

 BBT 202

 Bioorganic Chemistry

3

 ENG 105

 Advanced Composition

3

 SOC 101or

PSY 101

 Sociology/ Psychology

3

 Total Credits

30





MIC204: Environmental Microbiology (3 Credits)

Principles of microbiology and its application to lakes, streams, hazardous wastes, and biological treatment systems. Methods of evaluating impact of waste waters and hazardous wastes on ecological systems. Concept of limnology, including limiting of nutrients and control of nuisance growth. Microorganisms and some novel pollution problems; persistence and biomagnifications of xenobiotic molecules; recalcitrant halocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS), alkyl benzyl sulfonates, synthetic polymer. Prerequisite MIC201.

 

MIC205: Biostatistics  (3 Credits)

This course introduces statistical concepts and analytical methods as applied to data encountered in biotechnology and biomedical sciences. It emphasizes the basic concepts of experimental design, quantitative analysis of data, and statistical inferences. Topics include probability theory and distributions; population parameters and their sample estimates; descriptive statistics for central tendency and dispersion; hypothesis testing and confidence intervals for means, variances, and proportions; the chi-square statistic; categorical data analysis; linear correlation and regression model; analysis of variance; and nonparametric methods. The course provides students a foundation to evaluate information critically to support research objectives and product claims and a better understanding of statistical design of experimental trials for biological products/devices.

 

MIC206: Microbial Taxonomy and Diversity  (3 Credits)

Introduction to Diversity and Taxonomy, Microbial Evolution and Diversity, Microbial Diversification: Consequences for Earth’s Biosphere, Microbial Evolution, Microbial Taxonomy: Taxonomic ranks, Nomenclature rules and Identification, Classification systems, Taxonomic characteristics, Major methods used in Taxonomy, Divisions of Life, Classification of bacteria based on Bergey’s manual (Determinative), Classification of bacteria based on Bergey’s manual (Systematic)

 

MIC207: Microbial Physiology and Metabolism  (3 Credits)

Introduction to metabolisms: Overview, types of metabolic reactions, classification of microorgansisms based on carbon and energy sources; Bioenergetics: Biological Energy Transformation- laws of Thermodynamics, Entropy, Enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and related mathematics; Carbohydrate metabolism: Glycolsis- Embden-Meyerhof-Parans (EMP) Pathway, Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) Cycle, Gluconeogenesis, Metabolism of fructose, gluconate, lactose. Hexose Mono-phosphate (HMP) pathway, Glyoxalate cycle; Membrane transport system; Amino acid biosynthesis: Biosynthetic pathways of alanine, valine, leucine, aspartate, asparagine, lysine, methionine, isoleucine, glutamate, glutamine, arginine, proline, serine, glycine, cysteine; Nucleic acid biosynthesis: De novo and Salvage pathways of nucleotide biosynthesis and their regulation; Anaerobic metabolic processes: Carbohydrate fermentation by bacteria and yeast under anaerobic condition; Lipid biosynthesis: Structure and biological function of lipids. Fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis; Biological nitrogen fixation; Carbon di-oxide fixation by plants (Photosynthesis).

 

MIC209: Molecular Biology I  (3 Credits)

Important historical developments in genetics, particularly the contributions of Mendel, and Watson & Crick; and important research advances; Analysis of genetic problems using Punnett squares to illustrate Mendelian principles; Chromosome basis of inheritance, sex determination and sex linkage; types of chromosomal aberrations and their consequences; molecular genetics, gene function, the structure of genetic material; the organization of DNA in chromosomes; structure and replication of DNA, concepts of protein synthesis, gene expression, mutations, and genetic engineering;   transcription and the structural and functional features of the transcripts; genetic code and the translation of the genetic message.

 

MIC211: Laboratory II  (3 Credits)

General Microbiology I: Media for the Routine cultivation of Bacteria , Preparation of Differential and Selective Media, Enumeration of the total number of bacterial cells by direct and indirect methods. Culture methods-pour plate, spread plate and streak plate methods; Special culture methods-anaerobic and enrichment culture techniques. Staining techniques- positive staining, negative staining, differential staining, endospore staining, flagella staining and capsule staining. Preservation and maintenance of bacterial culture; Microbial Physiology: Effect of temperature, moist heat, osmotic pressure and pH on the growth of vegetative cells and spore of bacteria; Metabolic Activities of Microorganisms: Hydrolysis of Large Biopolymers Fermentation of Carbohydrates Respiration of Carbohydrates Utilization of Amino Acids Utilization of Citrate, Gelatin and Urea, Presumptive Identification of Unknown Bacteria Based on their Biochemical Activities.

 

BBT201: Biophysical Chemistry   (3 Credits)

Thermodynamics - First law, Second law and Introduction, definitions, Thermodynamic terms and basic concepts; Thermochemistry, Exothermic and endothermic reactions, standard enthalpy of formation, thermochemical equations; The nature of chemical equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant,  relationship between ∆G and Keq, effect of temperature and pressure, Le Chatelier’s principle,, Chemical Kinetics and it Definition, reaction rate, rate laws, order reactions, molecularity of a reaction, pseudo first order reaction, half-life, Catalysis, Photochemistry and Spetrophotometry, Transmittance and absorbance, Beer-Lambert law, Properties of liquids, Acids and bases.

 

BBT202: Bio-organic Chemistry I  (3 Credits)

This course is a comprehensive introduction in fundamental aspects of biological chemistry, for freshmen students. Knowledge of structure, functionality and reactivity of the organic molecules is vital for understanding the mechanism of numerous biological processes and biochemical reactions. This course provides a foundation of organic chemistry, i.e. the understanding of structure, properties, interactions, transformations and nomenclature of organic compounds. The Students attending the course will be able to recognize the major functional groups, write systematic names, draw accurate structures, correlate molecular structure with physical and chemical properties, categorize reactions by type, write or recognize essential reaction mechanisms, and recognize the structures and functions of the main classes of biomolecules.

3rd Professional Year (36 Credits):

 Courses

Titles   

Credits

 MIC 301

 Food Microbiology

3

 MIC 302

 Agricultural Microbiology

3

 MIC 303

 Immunology I

3

 MIC 304

 Environmental Pollution and Bioremediation

3

 MIC 305

 Virology I

3

 MIC 306

 Mycology

3

 MIC 307

 Microbial Genetics

3

 MIC 308

 Medical Microbiology

3

 MIC 309

 Enzymology

3

 MIC 310

 Quality Control of Food, Fish and Beverages

3

 MIC 311

 Introduction to Bioinformatics

3

 MIC 312

 Laboratory III

3

 Total Credits

36




MIC301: Food Microbiology (3 Credits)

Food borne pathogens and industrially important microorganisms; Factors (intrinsic and extrinsic) affecting the growth, survival and death of microorganisms in foods; Factors contributing to the contamination and spoilage of foods by microorganisms; Chemical/physical changes associated with food spoilage; Food preservation techniques and the hurdle concept: a)  Preservation of food by high temperature: Heat resistance of microorganisms and spores. Decimal reduction time (D values), 12D concept, thermal death time curves, F values, Pasteurization and Canning b)  Preservation of food by low temperature: The behaviour of microorganisms in freezing and subfreezing temperatures c)  Preservation of food by drying: Different methods of drying applied to the food industry and their mechanisms of actions d)  Preservation of food by chemical preservatives and radiations; Methods for enumeration and identification of bacteria and/or their metabolic products in food; Microbiology of milk and milk products; Microbiology of meat and poultry products; Microbiology of fish and seafood products; Microbiology of fruits and vegetables; Fermented food products.

 

MIC302: Agricultural Microbiology  (3 Credits)

The soil environment, Soil microbial flora, Plant-microbe interactions: interaction with plant roots, interaction with aerial plant structures, microbial diseases of plants, Biogeochemical cycling: Carbon cycle, Phosphorus cycle, Sulfur cycle, Biodegradation of complex carbohydrates: Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, Microbiology and biochemistry of nitrogen fixation, Biofertilizer technology, Biopesticides, Effects of genetically modified plants on soil microorganisms.

 

MIC303: Immunology I  (3 Credits)

The purpose of this course is to provide a basic knowledge of immunology. This course will provide in-depth understanding of the cells, molecules and organs of the immune system and how they work together to protect us from pathogen. The principal focus of the course will be on studying structural features of the components of the immune system and their functions, innate and adaptive branches of both humoral and cellular responses of the immune system. The course will also assign emphasis on learning the major mechanisms by which immune cells protect us from different types of pathogens or from cancer cells, how immune cells detect the presence of pathogens and cancer cells, processes that lead to the elimination of pathogens. Studying the structure and function of key immune recognition molecules including antigens, antibodies, antigen receptors, MHC proteins, cytokines are covered. The course will introduce some immunlogical assays to detect antigen-antibody interactions.

 

MIC304: Environmental Pollution and Bioremediation  (3 Credits)

Biodeterioration, Biodegradation and metabolism, Biodegradation of recalcitrant industrial wastes, Water treatment systems, Hazardous waste treatment technologies, Biotechnological aspects for effluent treatment, Biosensors, Bioremediation, Biological control of insects and pests, Pollution control biotechnology, Toxicity testing in waste water, New molecular methods for detection of waterborne pathogens.

 

MIC305: Virology I  (3 Credits)

Historical development and scope of virology; Nomenclature, classification, cultivation and replication of viruses; Bacteriophages: Structure and replication cycle of lytic and lysogenic phages; Viroids and Prions: Overview, replication and pathogenesis; Morphology, genomic structure, pathogenesis, diagnosis, Prevention and Control of Adenoviruses, Herpes Simplex viruses, Vericella Zoster virus, Pox viruses and Polio viruses. Epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention and control of HIV; Morphology, genomic structure, pathogenesis, diagnosis, Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B virus; Overview on tumor viruses: Epstein-Bar viruses, Cytomegalo virus; Mechanism of oncogenesis, Influenza viruses and its global impact.

 

MIC306: Mycology    (3 Credits)

History of Mycology, Fungi: General Characteristics, Fungal habitat and human-fungus interactions, Taxonomy, Nomenclature and classification of fungi, Class : Oomycetes, Class Zygomycetes: Fermented Foods ( Tempe ), Class: Basidiomycetes, Cultivation of mushrooms & other fungi, Spore release and dispersal, Poisonous and hallucinogenic mushrooms, Mycotoxins in the grain and other food products, Class: Ascomycetes: Apothecial, Perithecial, Pseudothecial, Cleistothecial, and Unicellular Ascomycota and Allies, Ergot & ergotism; Mycotoxins in Food, Alcoholic fermentations, cheeses and fungal metabolites, Class Deuteromycetes- The Impecfect fungi: Symbiotic and Parasitic relations, Allergies and Fungal Diseases of Animals & Humans , Antifungal agents, Fungal diseases, Industrial Applications of fungi.

 

MIC307: Microbial Genetics  (3 Credits)

Microbial Genetics and Genetic Materials; Bacterial transformation: Mechanisms, transformation analysis, Mapping by transformation, Bacterial conjugation: Lederberg and Tatum’s Experimental Design, Mapping Genes by Conjugation Analysis, F' Conjugation; Bacterial transduction: Analysis of Gene Transfer in Bacteria, Specialized Transduction, Generalized versus Specialized Transduction; Gene Cloning and the Polymerase Chain Reaction: Importance, Cloning Vector; Purification of DNA from Living Cells : Preparation of Total Cell DNA, Plasmid DNA and Bacteriophage DNA; Manipulation of Purified DNA: Restriction Endonucleases and ligation;  Introduction of DNA into Living Cells : Transformation, Identification of Recombinants , Introduction of Phage DNA into Bacterial and non bacterial Cells;  Vectors for Gene Cloning: E. coli Plasmids,  M13 Bacteriophage, λ Bacteriophage; Identification of a Clone from a Gene Library: Clone Identification , The Problem of Gene Expression.

 

MIC308: Medical Microbiology  (3 Credits)

Concept of infection and diseases, The spread of infections, Normal resident microflora of human body and their role, Determinants of bacterial pathogenicity and virulence, How bacterial pathogens penetrate host defenses, How bacterial pathogens damage cells, Pathogenic properties of viruses, Pathogenic properties of Fungi, protozoa, helminthes and Algae, Nosocomial Infections, Emerging Infectious diseases and epidemiology, Bacteria as human pathogens: Staphlococcus, Streptococcus, Clostridium, Listeria, Corynebacterium, Neissaria, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio.

 

MIC309: Enzymology  (3 Credits)

Enzymes as catalyst- Structure, function and importance of enzymes; Enzyme characteristics, catalytic power and specificity of enzymes, Enzyme-substrate interactions: lock and key model, induced-fit model; Enzymes as proteins and protein structure: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure; protein folding and domains, molecular chaperons; Nonprotein cofactors- metal ions, organic cofactors, Vitamins; Enzyme nomenclature/classification; Mechanism of enzyme catalysis- The nature and mechanism of enzyme action, Conditions affecting enzyme activity and  enzyme formation; Inhibition of enzyme action- Irreversible inhibition,  Reversible inhibition: Competitive, Un-competitive, Mixed and non-competitive inhibition; Enzyme kinetics- Michaelis-Menten equation, Lineweaver–Burk Double-Reciprocal Plot, Eadie–Hofstee Plot, First-order and zero-order kinetics, Problems and solutions; Enzyme regulation-Partial Proteolysis: Phosphorylation, adenylation, disulphide reduction, Allosteric regulation: Sigmoidal kinetics, Symmetry model, Concerted model; Kinetics and functions of allosteric enzymes- Phosphofructokinase; Enzyme isolation, purification and assay- Activity measurements, Initial velocity measurements, Enzyme units of activity, Turnover number and properties, Enzyme purification and assessment, Methods for measurement; Specific enzyme – case studies in terms of bacterial virulence:  ribonuclease A, HIV protease.

 

MIC310: Quality Control of Food, Fish and Beverages  (3 Credits)

Importance of quality control of food, fish, beverage and mineral water; Organization of quality control: the principals, applications, organization, problems and techniques of quality control; Microbiological quality   control: principles, fundamentals of microbiological quality control, chemical and microbiological indicators for quality assurance; Sanitation and inspection: sanitation and hygiene of processing plant, sanitizers and cleansing agents, water in processing and cleaning waste/effluent treatment packaging, equipment handling; Quality assurance: sampling, testing panel-sensory assignments in quality control; Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP), identification of potential hazards, monitoring system for critical control point (CCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP), good hygiene practice (GHP); microbiological risk assessment: basic frame, risk management policy and profiling; Food laws and regulations.

 

MIC311: Introduction to Bioinformatics  (3 Credits)

Bioinformatics involves the application of computational methods in order to address problems in molecular biology. This course will provide a graduate introduction to algorithms and their applications in bioinformatics. Topics in molecular biology that will motivate the algorithmic content of the course include: sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree reconstruction, prediction of RNA and protein structure, gene finding and sequence annotation, gene expression, and biomolecular computing. This is an interdisciplinary course, and the goal is to involve students who have strong background in molecular biology (such as students in the genetics, microbiology and biochemistry graduate program) familiar with free biological data base and software in internet. It is understood that students from these groups will have different skills and experience, and course lectures and assignments will take this into account. Practical work will familiarize students with biological data and tools for understanding this data and will help students gain a solid understanding of utilizing IT in everyday biological research. Some assignments will involve use and extension of software tools, and others will involve written studies of algorithms and their analysis.   Assignments will bring together students with different backgrounds to apply ideas from the course to a problem in molecular biology. BIO210 is the pre-requisite for other disciplinary students for this course

 

MIC312: Laboratory III  (3 Credits)

Food Microbiology: Determination of number of bacteria in milk, Determination of quality of a milk sample by methylene blue reductase test, Litmus milk test, Microbiology examination of dairy products, Detection of Salmonella spp. in poultry sample, Standard Qualitative analysis of Water samples; Virology: Isolation and purification of plant viruses, cultivation and enumeration of bacteriophages. Mycology: preparation of basic solid (PDA) media agar, slants and agar deep tubes for routine cultivation of fungi, Observation of morphology of molds using slide culture technique,  Mold cultivation on solid surfaces, Isolation of seed mycoflora, Isolation of yeast from sugary/ starchy materials; Medical microbiology: Isolation, identification and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of normal flora and pathogenic microorganism from clinical specimens; (a) skin (b)throat  (c) urinary tract (d) dental caries, Spreading of the infectious agent, Isolation of enteric pathogens from stool by direct plating method; Agricultural Microbiology: Nitrogen cycle denitrification, Isolation of symbiotic bacteria from environmental samples to demonstrate the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen.

4th Professional Year (33 Credits):

 Courses

 Titles   

Credits

 MIC 313

 Human Physiology

3

 MIC 401

 Microbial Biotechnology

3

 MIC 402

 Molecular Biology II

3

 MIC 403

 Immunology II

3

 MIC 404

 Pharmaceutical Microbiology

3

 MIC 406

 Clinical and Diagnostic microbiology

3

 MIC 407

 Virology II

3

 MIC 408

 Laboratory IV

3

 MIC 409

 Fermentation Technology

3

 MIC 412

 Bacterial Pathogenesis

3

 BBT 306

 Molecular Genetics

3

 MIC 499

 Project

4

 Total Credits

37

 


MIC313: Human Physiology (3 Credits)

Physiology is the study of how living organism functions. The main theme of human physiology is the molecular and cellular interaction to maintain the constant internal environment, i.e. homeostasis. This course commences with the principles of physiology, which is followed by an elaborate discussion of molecular-cellular physiology with a specific focus on neural and endocrine control and integration of homeostasis. Individual organ systems, including musculoskeletal, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems also given emphasis for a complete understanding that how human body functions.

 

MIC401: Microbial Biotechnology (3 Credits)

Overview of Microbial Biotechnology as an applied biological science. The scope and techniques of Microbial Biotechnology with specific examples, Important roles played by microorganisms in the treatment of solid and liquid wastes from domestic, municipal, agricultural and industrial sources, in order to reduce their potential environmental impact, Survey new developments in biomining,  Production of industrial enzymes using microorganisms and methods of enzyme immobilization, Developments in biotechnology led to the production of new kinds of vaccines, Apply biological sciences and engineering principles for manufacture of pharmaceuticals, Improvement in Agriculture using microbial molecular biotechnology principles, Strategies for Bioremediation, Biomass utilization using microbial molecular biotechnology techniques.

 

MIC402: Molecular Biology II (3 Credits)

Basic Techniques used to identify, amplify, and clone genes, construction of DNA Libraries; Regulation of Gene Expression-  expression vectors, general problems with the production of recombinant protein, important elements for translation, production of recombinant protein by eukaryotic cells; Fundamentals of Gene Expression- RNA transcript of a gene, identification of Translated product of a cloned gene; Introduction to genome and genomics: genes, genome annotation, metagenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and system biology; genome analysis: DNA markers, restriction enzymes and site-specific DNA cleavage, restriction mapping, electrophoresis; Selective amplification of genomic DNA fragments- Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), primers, conventional PCR vs. Real-Time PCR, PCR Amplification of Full-Length cDNAs, gene synthesis by PCR; DNA Markers: DNA markers present in genomic DNA, Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs), Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs), Simple Tandem Repeat Polymorphisms (STRPs); Sequencing Genes and Genomes: Chain Termination DNA Sequencing, Chemical Cleavage DNA Sequencing, DNA Sequencing by Primer Walking, Pyrosequencing, Sequencing Using Reversible Chain Terminators, Sequencing by Ligation, Whole genome sequencing; Applications of Molecular Biology: Recombinant DNA Technology to Identify Human denes and diseases, gene therapy,  Transgenic Animals and Plants, Reverse Genetics: dissecting biological processes by inhibiting gene expression

 

MIC403: Immunology II (3 Credits)

This course will enable understanding of the genetic aspects of the immune response and the role of the immune system in health and disease. Genetics of immune recognition molecules and its   knowledge in research and therapy will be discussed. Current experimental   approaches in immunology including production of monoclonal antibodies,   antibody engineering and their application are covered. This course will provide understanding of how excessive, inappropriate and defective immune responses can lead to hypersensitivity reactions, autoimmune and    immunodeficiency diseases. Topics of current immunological interest including immune tolerance, transplantation, vaccines and tumor immunology will be studied.

Prerequisite: BBT/MIC 303

 

MIC404: Pharmaceutical Microbiology (3 Credits)

Pharmaceuticals, Biologics and Biopharmaceuticals; Microbial Spoilage of Pharmaceutical Products and Contamination Control; Sterile Pharmaceutical Products; Antimicrobial Compounds; How Bacteria Become Resistant to Antibiotics; Therapeutic Hormones; Nucleic Acids as Therapeutic Agents; and  Monoclonal Antibodies and Recombinant Antibodies.

 

MIC406: Clinical and Diagnostic Microbiology (3 Credits)                                            

Biology of bacterial microorganism; Identify bacterial pathogens by means of key characteristics of metabolism, morphology, and pathogenesis; specimen type and collection procedures of different specimens; optimal methods for the isolation and identification of common pathogens found in clinical specimens; laboratory techniques to the identification of pathogenic microorganisms isolated from clinical specimens; overview of disease processes associated with specific etiologic agents, associating clinical findings with the agents of common diseases; mechanism of action of various antibiotics and antimicrobial agents; antimicrobial susceptibility testing procedures; safe laboratory procedures for the handling of biohazardous agents; quality control and quality assurance according to contemporary clinical laboratory standards.

 

MIC407: Virology II (3 Credits)

 

Animal viruses: Brief introduction of different classes of viruses: Footh and Mouth Disease Virus, Animal Herpes virus, Monkey Pox virus, Cow Pox virus, New Castle Disease virus, Swine Fever virus; Emerging Viruses: Nipah virus, Rabies virus-virion structure, genome organization and replication, viral pathogenesis, epidemiology, transmission, prevention and clinical diagnosis; Arboviruses: Flaviviruses, Japanese B encephalitis, Yellow Fever, West Nile Fever viruses, Dengue virus - virion structure, genome organization, replication, viral pathogenesis, epidemiology, transmission, prevention and control; HIV: Properties of Lentiviruses, structure & composition, classification,  genome organization, origin of AIDS, transmission, epidemiology, pathogenesis, drugs, treatment strategy and vaccine approaches; Tumor viruses and Oncogenes: general features of viral carcinogenesis, types of Tumor viruses, interactions with host cells, mechanisms of oncogenesis; RNA tumor viruses: Human T-cell leukaemia viruses (HTLV)- epidemiology, route of spread, prevalence, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, prophylaxis, infection control; DNA Tumor Viruses: Papilloma and polyoma, Simian virus 40 (SV 40)- epidemiology, prevalence, pathogenesis, clinical finding, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, prophylaxis, infection control); Respiratory and Gastrointestinal Tract Infections: Overview on viral respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infection; Rhinoviruses, Measles virus: epidemiology, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, prophylaxis, infection control; Retroviruses as tool for Genetic Engineering: General concept of Genetic Engineering, cloning Vectors, synthesis of a recombinant protein, HIV gene delivery System.

 

MIC408: Laboratory IV (3 Credits)

Molecular biology: Isolation of Streptomycin-Resistant Mutant, Isoaltion of crude DNA and Purified DNA from bacteria and onions, Assessment of DNA purity by spectophotometry, isolation of plasmid from bacteria and purification by agarose gel electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction, Restriction Fragment Length polymorphism, preparation of competent cells by CaCl2 method, gene cloning and DNA sequencing. Immunology and Diagnostic Microbiology: identification and counting of different formed elements in blood, Serum Separation from fresh human blood, estimation of total bilirubin concentration in supplied blood serum, determination of blood group, Monitoring of blood pressure, determination of glucose level in blood, HBsAg assay in patient serum sample by ELISA, Diagnosis of typhoid fever by tube dilution agglutination test (widal test). Biotechnology: Determination of enzyme activity at optimum temperature, pH and substrate concentration, Determination of Specific activity of enzyme, Kinetic properties of an enzyme, activators and inhibitors of enzymes; Leavening action of yeasts, Yogurt production by lactic acid bacteria; Production of citric acid by industrially used microorganisms; Production of ethanol and citric acid by industrially used microorganisms Pharmaceutical microbiology: Microbiological assay of pharmaceutical raw material, solids ointments & oral liquids, Bioassay of potency of drugs (antibiotic). Sterilization and sterility test.

 

MIC409: Fermentation Technology  (3 Credits)

Fermentation: An art from the past, a skill for the future, Industrial strain improvement, Preservation of cultures for fermentation processes, Media for industrial fermentation, Fermenter design and construction, Modes of fermenter operation, Sterilization, Scale Up of Fermentation Processes, The recovery and purification of fermentation products, Production of fermented foods: Bread, cheese, yogurt, beer, wine, tea, coffee, cocoa etc, Fermentation of foods in the orient, Microbial cells as fermentation products.

 

MIC412: Bacterial Pathogenesis   (3 Credits)

Principles of bacterial cell biology, including genome plasticity, mobile genetic elements, intracellular signaling, membrane biogenesis; concepts of prokaryotic cell signaling including chemotaxis/motility, cell-cell signaling (quorum sensing, biofilms); bacterial virulence strategies, such as LPS synthesis and expression of carbohydrate receptors; bacterial exploitation of host cell biology: mucosal cell entry, transcytosis, intracellular trafficking and survival, Role of bacterial community with respect to intestinal flora and health, key players of host cell defense: innate receptors, innate effectors (collectins, defensins, sIgA mucus) mechanisms of action of antibiotics and resistance mechanism, integrons, plasmids and efflux pumps , protein secretion systems, pathogenicity islands, bacterial adhesion, immune evasion strategies and novel antibiotics/phage therapy.

 

MIC 499: Project (4 Credits)

Every student will be required to participate in a project related to biochemistry and biotechnology under the supervision of an advisor, approved by the chairman. They will write a thesis paper on their work, present it before a large audience and answer questions regarding their work.

Course Information

Taught Courses

 

Students must have to take these courses during the program. Students should regularly monitor their progress in the major, and realistically assess the likelihood of achieving at a level that is consistent with their academic and personal goals. Weak performance (C- or lower) in taught courses may indicate a need to re-evaluate commitment to and genuine interest in the major. Students with questions and concerns are encouraged to talk to one of the advisors in the Office of Undergraduate Biology.

 

Taught Courses: 84 credits

 

Course ID

Title

Credits

 MIC101

 Basic Microbiology

3

 MIC201

 Microbial Ecology

3

 MIC202

 Basic Techniques in Microbiology

3

 MIC203

 Chemistry of Microorganisms

3

 MIC204

 Environmental Microbiology 

3

 MIC205

 Biostatistics

3

 MIC206

 Microbial Taxonomy and Diversity

3

 MIC207

 Microbial Physiology and Metabolism

3

 MIC209

 Molecular Biology I

3

 MIC301

 Food Microbiology

3

 MIC302

 Agricultural Microbiology

3

 MIC303

 Immunology I

3

 MIC304

 Environmental Pollution and Bioremediation

3

 MIC305

 Virology I

3

 MIC306

 Mycology

3

 MIC307

 Microbial Genetics

3

 MIC308

 Medical Microbiology

3

 MIC309

 Enzymology

3

 MIC310

 Quality Control of Food, Fish and Beverages

3

 MIC311

 Introduction to Bioinformatics

3

 MIC401

 Microbial Biotechnology

3

 MIC402

 Molecular Biology II

3

 MIC403

 Immunology II

3

 MIC404

 Pharmaceutical Microbiology

3

 MIC406

 Clinical and Diagnostic Microbiology

3

 MIC407

 Virology II

3

 MIC409

 Fermentation Technology

3

 MIC412

 Bacterial Pathogenesis

3

 

MIC101: Basic Microbiology  (3 Credits)                                                                             

Important historical developments which led to the formulation of the germ theory of disease and those discoveries that lead to the development of the science of biotechnology; historical background of the classification of microorganisms, and the techniques used to categorize them; differences between the old five-kingdom system and the modern three-domain system; structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Bacterial growth curve- lag phase, exponential phase, stationary phase and death phase; archaeal diversity and life in extreme environment; survey of prokaryotic microorganisms with unusual characteristics; basic structure and characteristics of viruses, infection process with emphasis on animal viruses and bacteriophage; diversity and importance of eukaryotic microorganisms, namely protozoa, fungi and algae; nutritional requirement of microorgamisms and classification; cultivation of microorganisms in the laboratory.

 

MIC201: Microbial Ecology  (3 Credits)

Topics covered in this course are-Basic concept of Microbial Ecology, Microbial Evolution: Origin of life, chemical evolution, evolution of organelle, evolution of biochemical pathways. Biodiversity: Archae, Eukarya, Bacteria. Microbial interaction: Microbe-microbe interaction, Plant -Microbe interaction, Animal- Microbe Interaction. Quantitative ecology: Sample collection, processing and determination of microbial number and biomass. Microorganism on their natural habitat: Hydrosphere, Lithosphere and Atmosphere. Effect of physical factors on microorganisms . Biogeochemical cycles.

 

MIC202: Basic Techniques in Microbiology  (3 Credits)

Microscope and Microscopy: Brightfield microscopy,  Darkfield microscopy, Phase contrast microscopy, Fluorescence microscopy, Electron microscopy, Preparation and staining of specimens for microscopy, Nutritional types of microorganisms, Physical requirements for microbial growth, Chemical requirements for microbial growth, Culture media: Chemically defined media, Complex media, Anaerobic growth media and methods, Selective and differential media, Enrichment culture, Isolation of pure cultures, Preservation of pure cultures, The growth of bacterial cultures, Direct measurement of microbial growth, Indirect measurement of microbial growth, The control of microbial growth: i) Physical methods , ii) Chemical methods

 

MIC203: Chemistry of Microorganisms  (3 Credits)

Biomolecules and Biopolymers - Structure and function of different macromolecules i.e. Nucleic acids, Proteins and Carbohydrates; Chemical composition and function of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cell walls and cell membranes; Chemical composition and function of capsules, slime layers, pili and fimbriae, cytoplasmic matrix, cilia, flagella, inclusion bodies and pigments; Structure of ribosomes and mechanism of protein synthesis in prokaryotic cells; Endospores- structure, biological function, mechanism of endospore formation and transformation into vegetative cell in prokaryotes; Antimicrobial agents and their mode of actions - i) Control of microorganisms by physical agents: Steam under pressure, Fractional sterilization, Boiling water method, Hot air sterilization, Incineration, Desiccation, Osmotic pressure, Radiations and Filtration.  ii) Control of microorganisms by chemical agents: Phenol and phenolic compounds, Alcohols, Halogens, Heavy metals and their compounds, Dyes, Detergents, Quaternary ammonium compounds, Aldehydes and Gaseous agents. iii) Antibiotics and their mode of actions. iv) Mechanisms of antibiotic   resistance in bacteria.

 

MIC204: Environmental Microbiology  (3 Credits)

Principles of microbiology and its application to lakes, streams, hazardous wastes, and biological treatment systems. Methods of evaluating impact of waste waters and hazardous wastes on ecological systems. Concept of limnology, including limiting of nutrients and control of nuisance growth. Microorganisms and some novel pollution problems; persistence and biomagnifications of xenobiotic molecules; recalcitrant halocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS), alkyl benzyl sulfonates, synthetic polymer. Prerequisite MIC201.

 

MIC205: Biostatistics  (3 Credits)

This course introduces statistical concepts and analytical methods as applied to data encountered in biotechnology and biomedical sciences. It emphasizes the basic concepts of experimental design, quantitative analysis of data, and statistical inferences. Topics include probability theory and distributions; population parameters and their sample estimates; descriptive statistics for central tendency and dispersion; hypothesis testing and confidence intervals for means, variances, and proportions; the chi-square statistic; categorical data analysis; linear correlation and regression model; analysis of variance; and nonparametric methods. The course provides students a foundation to evaluate information critically to support research objectives and product claims and a better understanding of statistical design of experimental trials for biological products/devices.

 

MIC206: Microbial Taxonomy and Diversity  (3 Credits)

Introduction to Diversity and Taxonomy, Microbial Evolution and Diversity, Microbial Diversification: Consequences for Earth’s Biosphere, Microbial Evolution, Microbial Taxonomy: Taxonomic ranks, Nomenclature rules and Identification, Classification systems, Taxonomic characteristics, Major methods used in Taxonomy, Divisions of Life, Classification of bacteria based on Bergey’s manual (Determinative), Classification of bacteria based on Bergey’s manual (Systematic)

 

MIC207: Microbial Physiology and Metabolism  (3 Credits)

Introduction to metabolisms: Overview, types of metabolic reactions, classification of microorgansisms based on carbon and energy sources; Bioenergetics: Biological Energy Transformation- laws of Thermodynamics, Entropy, Enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and related mathematics; Carbohydrate metabolism: Glycolsis- Embden-Meyerhof-Parans (EMP) Pathway, Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) Cycle, Gluconeogenesis, Metabolism of fructose, gluconate, lactose. Hexose Mono-phosphate (HMP) pathway, Glyoxalate cycle; Membrane transport system; Amino acid biosynthesis: Biosynthetic pathways of alanine, valine, leucine, aspartate, asparagine, lysine, methionine, isoleucine, glutamate, glutamine, arginine, proline, serine, glycine, cysteine; Nucleic acid biosynthesis: De novo and Salvage pathways of nucleotide biosynthesis and their regulation; Anaerobic metabolic processes: Carbohydrate fermentation by bacteria and yeast under anaerobic condition; Lipid biosynthesis: Structure and biological function of lipids. Fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis; Biological nitrogen fixation; Carbon di-oxide fixation by plants (Photosynthesis).

 

MIC209: Molecular Biology (3 Credits)

Important historical developments in genetics, particularly the contributions of Mendel, and Watson & Crick; and important research advances; Analysis of genetic problems using Punnett squares to illustrate Mendelian principles; Chromosome basis of inheritance, sex determination and sex linkage; types of chromosomal aberrations and their consequences; molecular genetics, gene function, the structure of genetic material; the organization of DNA in chromosomes; structure and replication of DNA, concepts of protein synthesis, gene expression, mutations, and genetic engineering;   transcription and the structural and functional features of the transcripts; genetic code and the translation of the genetic message.

 

MIC301: Food Microbiology  (3 Credits)

Food borne pathogens and industrially important microorganisms; Factors (intrinsic and extrinsic) affecting the growth, survival and death of microorganisms in foods; Factors contributing to the contamination and spoilage of foods by microorganisms; Chemical/physical changes associated with food spoilage; Food preservation techniques and the hurdle concept: a)  Preservation of food by high temperature: Heat resistance of microorganisms and spores. Decimal reduction time (D values), 12D concept, thermal death time curves, F values, Pasteurization and Canning b)  Preservation of food by low temperature: The behaviour of microorganisms in freezing and subfreezing temperatures c)  Preservation of food by drying: Different methods of drying applied to the food industry and their mechanisms of actions d)  Preservation of food by chemical preservatives and radiations; Methods for enumeration and identification of bacteria and/or their metabolic products in food; Microbiology of milk and milk products; Microbiology of meat and poultry products; Microbiology of fish and seafood products; Microbiology of fruits and vegetables; Fermented food products.

 

MIC302: Agricultural Microbiology  (3 Credits)

The soil environment, Soil microbial flora, Plant-microbe interactions: interaction with plant roots, interaction with aerial plant structures, microbial diseases of plants, Biogeochemical cycling: Carbon cycle, Phosphorus cycle, Sulfur cycle, Biodegradation of complex carbohydrates: Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, Microbiology and biochemistry of nitrogen fixation, Biofertilizer technology, Biopesticides, Effects of genetically modified plants on soil microorganisms.

 

MIC303: Immunology I  (3 Credits)

The purpose of this course is to provide a basic knowledge of immunology. This course will provide in-depth understanding of the cells, molecules and organs of the immune system and how they work together to protect us from pathogen. The principal focus of the course will be on studying structural features of the components of the immune system and their functions, innate and adaptive branches of both humoral and cellular responses of the immune system. The course will also assign emphasis on learning the major mechanisms by which immune cells protect us from different types of pathogens or from cancer cells, how immune cells detect the presence of pathogens and cancer cells, processes that lead to the elimination of pathogens. Studying the structure and function of key immune recognition molecules including antigens, antibodies, antigen receptors, MHC proteins, cytokines are covered. The course will introduce some immunlogical assays to detect antigen-antibody interactions.

 

MIC304: Environmental Pollution and Bioremediation  (3 Credits)

Biodeterioration, Biodegradation and metabolism, Biodegradation of recalcitrant industrial wastes, Water treatment systems, Hazardous waste treatment technologies, Biotechnological aspects for effluent treatment, Biosensors, Bioremediation, Biological control of insects and pests, Pollution control biotechnology, Toxicity testing in waste water, New molecular methods for detection of waterborne pathogens.

 

MIC305: Virology I  (3 Credits)

Historical development and scope of virology; Nomenclature, classification, cultivation and replication of viruses; Bacteriophages: Structure and replication cycle of lytic and lysogenic phages; Viroids and Prions: Overview, replication and pathogenesis; Morphology, genomic structure, pathogenesis, diagnosis, Prevention and Control of Adenoviruses, Herpes Simplex viruses, Vericella Zoster virus, Pox viruses and Polio viruses. Epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention and control of HIV; Morphology, genomic structure, pathogenesis, diagnosis, Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B virus; Overview on tumor viruses: Epstein-Bar viruses, Cytomegalo virus; Mechanism of oncogenesis, Influenza viruses and its global impact.

 

MIC306: Mycology (3 Credits)

History of Mycology, Fungi: General Characteristics, Fungal habitat and human-fungus interactions, Taxonomy, Nomenclature and classification of fungi, Class : Oomycetes, Class Zygomycetes: Fermented Foods ( Tempe ), Class: Basidiomycetes, Cultivation of mushrooms & other fungi, Spore release and dispersal, Poisonous and hallucinogenic mushrooms, Mycotoxins in the grain and other food products, Class: Ascomycetes: Apothecial, Perithecial, Pseudothecial, Cleistothecial, and Unicellular Ascomycota and Allies, Ergot & ergotism; Mycotoxins in Food, Alcoholic fermentations, cheeses and fungal metabolites, Class Deuteromycetes- The Impecfect fungi: Symbiotic and Parasitic relations, Allergies and Fungal Diseases of Animals & Humans , Antifungal agents, Fungal diseases, Industrial Applications of fungi.

 

MIC307: Microbial Genetics  (3 Credits)

Microbial Genetics and Genetic Materials; Bacterial transformation: Mechanisms, transformation analysis, Mapping by transformation, Bacterial conjugation: Lederberg and Tatum’s Experimental Design, Mapping Genes by Conjugation Analysis, F' Conjugation; Bacterial transduction: Analysis of Gene Transfer in Bacteria, Specialized Transduction, Generalized versus Specialized Transduction; Gene Cloning and the Polymerase Chain Reaction: Importance, Cloning Vector; Purification of DNA from Living Cells : Preparation of Total Cell DNA, Plasmid DNA and Bacteriophage DNA; Manipulation of Purified DNA: Restriction Endonucleases and ligation;  Introduction of DNA into Living Cells : Transformation, Identification of Recombinants , Introduction of Phage DNA into Bacterial and non bacterial Cells;  Vectors for Gene Cloning: E. coli Plasmids,  M13 Bacteriophage, λ Bacteriophage; Identification of a Clone from a Gene Library: Clone Identification , The Problem of Gene Expression.

 

MIC308: Medical Microbiology  (3 Credits)                                                                  

Concept of infection and diseases, The spread of infections, Normal resident microflora of human body and their role, Determinants of bacterial pathogenicity and virulence, How bacterial pathogens penetrate host defenses, How bacterial pathogens damage cells, Pathogenic properties of viruses, Pathogenic properties of Fungi, protozoa, helminthes and Algae, Nosocomial Infections, Emerging Infectious diseases and epidemiology, Bacteria as human pathogens: Staphlococcus, Streptococcus, Clostridium, Listeria, Corynebacterium, Neissaria, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio.

 

MIC309: Enzymology  (3 Credits)

Enzymes as catalyst- Structure, function and importance of enzymes; Enzyme characteristics, catalytic power and specificity of enzymes, Enzyme-substrate interactions: lock and key model, induced-fit model; Enzymes as proteins and protein structure: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure; protein folding and domains, molecular chaperons; Nonprotein cofactors- metal ions, organic cofactors, Vitamins; Enzyme nomenclature/classification; Mechanism of enzyme catalysis- The nature and mechanism of enzyme action, Conditions affecting enzyme activity and  enzyme formation; Inhibition of enzyme action- Irreversible inhibition,  Reversible inhibition: Competitive, Un-competitive, Mixed and non-competitive inhibition; Enzyme kinetics- Michaelis-Menten equation, Lineweaver–Burk Double-Reciprocal Plot, Eadie–Hofstee Plot, First-order and zero-order kinetics, Problems and solutions; Enzyme regulation-Partial Proteolysis: Phosphorylation, adenylation, disulphide reduction, Allosteric regulation: Sigmoidal kinetics, Symmetry model, Concerted model; Kinetics and functions of allosteric enzymes- Phosphofructokinase; Enzyme isolation, purification and assay- Activity measurements, Initial velocity measurements, Enzyme units of activity, Turnover number and properties, Enzyme purification and assessment, Methods for measurement; Specific enzyme – case studies in terms of bacterial virulence:  ribonuclease A, HIV protease.

 

MIC310: Quality Control of Food, Fish and Beverages  (3 Credits)

Importance of quality control of food, fish, beverage and mineral water; Organization of quality control: the principals, applications, organization, problems and techniques of quality control; Microbiological quality   control: principles, fundamentals of microbiological quality control, chemical and microbiological indicators for quality assurance; Sanitation and inspection: sanitation and hygiene of processing plant, sanitizers and cleansing agents, water in processing and cleaning waste/effluent treatment packaging, equipment handling; Quality assurance: sampling, testing panel-sensory assignments in quality control; Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP), identification of potential hazards, monitoring system for critical control point (CCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP), good hygiene practice (GHP); microbiological risk assessment: basic frame, risk management policy and profiling; Food laws and regulations.

 

MIC311: Introduction to Bioinformatics  (3 Credits)

Bioinformatics involves the application of computational methods in order to address problems in molecular biology. This course will provide a graduate introduction to algorithms and their applications in bioinformatics. Topics in molecular biology that will motivate the algorithmic content of the course include: sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree reconstruction, prediction of RNA and protein structure, gene finding and sequence annotation, gene expression, and biomolecular computing. This is an interdisciplinary course, and the goal is to involve students who have strong background in molecular biology (such as students in the genetics, microbiology and biochemistry graduate program) familiar with free biological data base and software in internet. It is understood that students from these groups will have different skills and experience, and course lectures and assignments will take this into account. Practical work will familiarize students with biological data and tools for understanding this data and will help students gain a solid understanding of utilizing IT in everyday biological research. Some assignments will involve use and extension of software tools, and others will involve written studies of algorithms and their analysis.   Assignments will bring together students with different backgrounds to apply ideas from the course to a problem in molecular biology. BIO210 is the pre-requisite for other disciplinary students for this course

 

MIC401: Microbial Biotechnology  (3 Credits)

Overview of Microbial Biotechnology as an applied biological science. The scope and techniques of Microbial Biotechnology with specific examples, Important roles played by microorganisms in the treatment of solid and liquid wastes from domestic, municipal, agricultural and industrial sources, in order to reduce their potential environmental impact, Survey new developments in biomining,  Production of industrial enzymes using microorganisms and methods of enzyme immobilization, Developments in biotechnology led to the production of new kinds of vaccines, Apply biological sciences and engineering principles for manufacture of pharmaceuticals, Improvement in Agriculture using microbial molecular biotechnology principles, Strategies for Bioremediation, Biomass utilization using microbial molecular biotechnology techniques.

 

MIC402: Molecular Biology II  (3 Credits)                                                                     

Basic Techniques used to identify, amplify, and clone genes, construction of DNA Libraries; Regulation of Gene Expression-  expression vectors, general problems with the production of recombinant protein, important elements for translation, production of recombinant protein by eukaryotic cells; Fundamentals of Gene Expression- RNA transcript of a gene, identification of Translated product of a cloned gene; Introduction to genome and genomics: genes, genome annotation, metagenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and system biology; genome analysis: DNA markers, restriction enzymes and site-specific DNA cleavage, restriction mapping, electrophoresis; Selective amplification of genomic DNA fragments- Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), primers, conventional PCR vs. Real-Time PCR, PCR Amplification of Full-Length cDNAs, gene synthesis by PCR; DNA Markers: DNA markers present in genomic DNA, Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs), Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs), Simple Tandem Repeat Polymorphisms (STRPs); Sequencing Genes and Genomes: Chain Termination DNA Sequencing, Chemical Cleavage DNA Sequencing, DNA Sequencing by Primer Walking, Pyrosequencing, Sequencing Using Reversible Chain Terminators, Sequencing by Ligation, Whole genome sequencing; Applications of Molecular Biology: Recombinant DNA Technology to Identify Human denes and diseases, gene therapy,  Transgenic Animals and Plants, Reverse Genetics: dissecting biological processes by inhibiting gene expression

 

MIC403: Immunology II  (3 Credits)

This course will enable understanding of the genetic aspects of the immune response and the role of the immune system in health and disease. Genetics of immune recognition molecules and its   knowledge in research and therapy will be discussed. Current experimental   approaches in immunology including production of monoclonal antibodies,   antibody engineering and their application are covered. This course will provide understanding of how excessive, inappropriate and defective immune responses can lead to hypersensitivity reactions, autoimmune and    immunodeficiency diseases. Topics of current immunological interest including immune tolerance, transplantation, vaccines and tumor immunology will be studied.

Prerequisite: BBT/MIC 303

 

MIC404: Pharmaceutical Microbiology  (3 Credits)

Pharmaceuticals, Biologics and Biopharmaceuticals; Microbial Spoilage of Pharmaceutical Products and Contamination Control; Sterile Pharmaceutical Products; Antimicrobial Compounds; How Bacteria Become Resistant to Antibiotics; Therapeutic Hormones; Nucleic Acids as Therapeutic Agents; and  Monoclonal Antibodies and Recombinant Antibodies.

 

MIC406: Clinical and Diagnostic Microbiology  (3 Credits)

Biology of bacterial microorganism; Identify bacterial pathogens by means of key characteristics of metabolism, morphology, and pathogenesis; specimen type and collection procedures of different specimens; optimal methods for the isolation and identification of common pathogens found in clinical specimens; laboratory techniques to the identification of pathogenic microorganisms isolated from clinical specimens; overview of disease processes associated with specific etiologic agents, associating clinical findings with the agents of common diseases; mechanism of action of various antibiotics and antimicrobial agents; antimicrobial susceptibility testing procedures; safe laboratory procedures for the handling of biohazardous agents; quality control and quality assurance according to contemporary clinical laboratory standards.

 

MIC407: Virology II  (3 Credits)

Animal viruses: Brief introduction of different classes of viruses: Footh and Mouth Disease Virus, Animal Herpes virus, Monkey Pox virus, Cow Pox virus, New Castle Disease virus, Swine Fever virus; Emerging Viruses: Nipah virus, Rabies virus-virion structure, genome organization and replication, viral pathogenesis, epidemiology, transmission, prevention and clinical diagnosis; Arboviruses: Flaviviruses, Japanese B encephalitis, Yellow Fever, West Nile Fever viruses, Dengue virus - virion structure, genome organization, replication, viral pathogenesis, epidemiology, transmission, prevention and control; HIV: Properties of Lentiviruses, structure & composition, classification,  genome organization, origin of AIDS, transmission, epidemiology, pathogenesis, drugs, treatment strategy and vaccine approaches; Tumor viruses and Oncogenes: general features of viral carcinogenesis, types of Tumor viruses, interactions with host cells, mechanisms of oncogenesis; RNA tumor viruses: Human T-cell leukaemia viruses (HTLV)- epidemiology, route of spread, prevalence, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, prophylaxis, infection control; DNA Tumor Viruses: Papilloma and polyoma, Simian virus 40 (SV 40)- epidemiology, prevalence, pathogenesis, clinical finding, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, prophylaxis, infection control); Respiratory and Gastrointestinal Tract Infections: Overview on viral respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infection; Rhinoviruses, Measles virus: epidemiology, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, prophylaxis, infection control; Retroviruses as tool for Genetic Engineering: General concept of Genetic Engineering, cloning Vectors, synthesis of a recombinant protein, HIV gene delivery System.

 

MIC409: Fermentation Technology  (3 Credits)

Fermentation: An art from the past, a skill for the future, Industrial strain improvement, Preservation of cultures for fermentation processes, Media for industrial fermentation, Fermenter design and construction, Modes of fermenter operation, Sterilization, Scale Up of Fermentation Processes, The recovery and purification of fermentation products, Production of fermented foods: Bread, cheese, yogurt, beer, wine, tea, coffee, cocoa etc, Fermentation of foods in the orient, Microbial cells as fermentation products.

 

MIC412: Bacterial Pathogenesis   (3 Credits)

Principles of bacterial cell biology, including genome plasticity, mobile genetic elements, intracellular signaling, membrane biogenesis; concepts of prokaryotic cell signaling including chemotaxis/motility, cell-cell signaling (quorum sensing, biofilms); bacterial virulence strategies, such as LPS synthesis and expression of carbohydrate receptors; bacterial exploitation of host cell biology: mucosal cell entry, transcytosis, intracellular trafficking and survival, Role of bacterial community with respect to intestinal flora and health, key players of host cell defense: innate receptors, innate effectors (collectins, defensins, sIgA mucus) mechanisms of action of antibiotics and resistance mechanism, integrons, plasmids and efflux pumps , protein secretion systems, pathogenicity islands, bacterial adhesion, immune evasion strategies and novel antibiotics/phage therapy.

Laboratory

During four professional years students have to attend 4 LAB classes where they will have practical experiences about microbial world. Their research skills will be developed and they will learn about the techniques which are related to the theoretical background. For detail see ‘Research’ page.

 

Laboratory and Project: 16 credits

 

Course ID

Title

Credits

 MIC109

 Laboratory I

3

 MIC211

 Laboratory II

3

 MIC312

 Laboratory III

3

 MIC408

 Laboratory IV 

3

 MIC499

 Project            

4

 

 

MIC109: Laboratory I  (3 Credits)                                                                                    

The basic idea of a biochemistry and microbiology laboratory will be provided in this course. The students will get practical experiences on the detection of an unknown organic compound based on their physical and chemical properties. Emphasis will be given on the nature of different biochemical solution and how to prepare them accurately. Moreover students will also get basic idea how to detect specific organic compound present in biological sample. In the microbiology section the basic laboratory skill will be discussed and student will learn the basic techniques to detect and isolate microorganisms from food and water samples.

 

MIC211: Laboratory II  (3 Credits)                                                                                 

General Microbiology I: Media for the Routine cultivation of Bacteria , Preparation of Differential and Selective Media, Enumeration of the total number of bacterial cells by direct and indirect methods. Culture methods-pour plate, spread plate and streak plate methods; Special culture methods-anaerobic and enrichment culture techniques. Staining techniques- positive staining, negative staining, differential staining, endospore staining, flagella staining and capsule staining. Preservation and maintenance of bacterial culture; Microbial Physiology: Effect of temperature, moist heat, osmotic pressure and pH on the growth of vegetative cells and spore of bacteria; Metabolic Activities of Microorganisms: Hydrolysis of Large Biopolymers Fermentation of Carbohydrates Respiration of Carbohydrates Utilization of Amino Acids Utilization of Citrate, Gelatin and Urea, Presumptive Identification of Unknown Bacteria Based on their Biochemical Activities.

 

MIC312: Laboratory III  (3 Credits)                                                                                

Food Microbiology: Determination of number of bacteria in milk, Determination of quality of a milk sample by methylene blue reductase test, Litmus milk test, Microbiology examination of dairy products, Detection of Salmonella spp. in poultry sample, Standard Qualitative analysis of Water samples; Virology: Isolation and purification of plant viruses, cultivation and enumeration of bacteriophages. Mycology: preparation of basic solid (PDA) media agar, slants and agar deep tubes for routine cultivation of fungi, Observation of morphology of molds using slide culture technique,  Mold cultivation on solid surfaces, Isolation of seed mycoflora, Isolation of yeast from sugary/ starchy materials; Medical microbiology: Isolation, identification and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of normal flora and pathogenic microorganism from clinical specimens; (a) skin (b)throat  (c) urinary tract (d) dental caries, Spreading of the infectious agent, Isolation of enteric pathogens from stool by direct plating method; Agricultural Microbiology: Nitrogen cycle denitrification, Isolation of symbiotic bacteria from environmental samples to demonstrate the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen.

 

MIC408: Laboratory IV  (3 Credits)                                                                               

Molecular biology: Isolation of Streptomycin-Resistant Mutant, Isoaltion of crude DNA and Purified DNA from bacteria and onions, Assessment of DNA purity by spectophotometry, isolation of plasmid from bacteria and purification by agarose gel electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction, Restriction Fragment Length polymorphism, preparation of competent cells by CaCl2 method, gene cloning and DNA sequencing. Immunology and Diagnostic Microbiology: identification and counting of different formed elements in blood, Serum Separation from fresh human blood, estimation of total bilirubin concentration in supplied blood serum, determination of blood group, Monitoring of blood pressure, determination of glucose level in blood, HBsAg assay in patient serum sample by ELISA, Diagnosis of typhoid fever by tube dilution agglutination test (widal test). Biotechnology: Determination of enzyme activity at optimum temperature, pH and substrate concentration, Determination of Specific activity of enzyme, Kinetic properties of an enzyme, activators and inhibitors of enzymes; Leavening action of yeasts, Yogurt production by lactic acid bacteria; Production of citric acid by industrially used microorganisms; Production of ethanol and citric acid by industrially used microorganisms Pharmaceutical microbiology: Microbiological assay of pharmaceutical raw material, solids ointments & oral liquids, Bioassay of potency of drugs (antibiotic). Sterilization and sterility test.

 

MIC 499: Project  (3 Credits)                                                                                           

Every student will be required to participate in a project related to biochemistry and biotechnology under the supervision of an advisor, approved by the chairman. They will write a thesis paper on their work, present it before a large audience and answer questions regarding their work.

GED and Open Electives

 

General educational developments or GED courses are the courses that are offered with the major courses which may or may not have to be related to your major. It may help especially with the prerequisites. That's the point of a GED: it is directed study in an area which may interest you, regardless of whether it is within your major or not.

Open electives are the courses that are not considered as major but can extend the knowledge beyond the majors. We offer the following courses in microbiology program from which 27 credits are for is GED and 6 credits are for open electives. List of subjects are given below;

 

GED and Open Electives: 33 credits

 

Course ID

Title

Credits

 MIC105/BBT103

 Computer and Communications

3

 BBT201

 Biophysical Chemistry

3

 BBT202

 Bio-organic Chemistry I

3

 BBT116

 Math for Biologists

3

 BBT211

 Physics for Biologists

3

 BBT306

 Molecular Genetics

3

 BBT307

 Endocrinology

3

 BBT401

 Cellular Biochemistry

3

 BIO103

 Biology I         

3

 BIO210

 Advance Biology

3

 CHE101

 General Chemistry

3

 ENG102

 Introduction to Composition

3

 ENG103

 Intermediate Composition

3

 ENG105

 Advanced Composition

3

 MIC110

 Introductory Biochemistry

3

 MIC313

 Human Physiology

3

 PSY101

 Introduction to Psychology

3

 SOC101

 Introduction to Sociology       

3



MIC105/BBT103: Computer and Communications  (3 Credits)

The students in Computer and Communications will be using personal computers in their everyday activities and projects. This subject will be covering four major areas: Windows; Microsoft Office applications, the Internet (Search engine and Introduction to Bioinformatics), and Draw/Paint. The students will acquire the basics of the Windows system so that they will be able to navigate with ease through the various applications they will be using throughout their graduation. Microsoft Office contains word processing, spreadsheet, and presentation applications—software that will be critical for degree and career success. All the computers in the class have Internet access. For many of their projects, the students will be working in collaborative groups. Students will be working side-by-side to complete exercises and produce final projects. This course has been provided to student as GED course.

 

BBT201: Biophysical Chemistry   (3 Credits)

Thermodynamics - First law, Second law and Introduction, definitions, Thermodynamic terms and basic concepts; Thermochemistry, Exothermic and endothermic reactions, standard enthalpy of formation, thermochemical equations; The nature of chemical equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant,  relationship between ∆G and Keq, effect of temperature and pressure, Le Chatelier’s principle,, Chemical Kinetics and it Definition, reaction rate, rate laws, order reactions, molecularity of a reaction, pseudo first order reaction, half-life, Catalysis, Photochemistry and Spetrophotometry, Transmittance and absorbance, Beer-Lambert law, Properties of liquids, Acids and bases.

 

BBT202: Bio-organic Chemistry I  (3 Credits)

This course is a comprehensive introduction in fundamental aspects of biological chemistry, for freshmen students. Knowledge of structure, functionality and reactivity of the organic molecules is vital for understanding the mechanism of numerous biological processes and biochemical reactions. This course provides a foundation of organic chemistry, i.e. the understanding of structure, properties, interactions, transformations and nomenclature of organic compounds. The Students attending the course will be able to recognize the major functional groups, write systematic names, draw accurate structures, correlate molecular structure with physical and chemical properties, categorize reactions by type, write or recognize essential reaction mechanisms, and recognize the structures and functions of the main classes of biomolecules.

 

BBT116: Math for Biologists  (3 Credits)

The major objective of the course is to provide a student majoring in the biological sciences a mastery of the basic concepts of mathematics of changing and explore some of its applications in related fields. The concepts of differentiation and integration of different functions including vectors and differential equations will be the major focus of this course. The emphasis will be given on analytical, numerical and graphical approach of these topics. This course has been provided to student as GED course.

 

BBT211: Physics for Biologist  (3 Credits) 

This course has been design especially for biological student in order to understand the concepts and principles of physics. In this course, we will discuss conceptual and quantitative problems and questions. A comprehensive coverage of subject matter in physics is presented, including mechanics, properties of matter, wave motions, electricity, magnetism, optics and atomic and nuclear physics. The major objective of the course is to provide a student majoring in the biological sciences a mastery of the basic concepts of physics and explore some of its applications in related fields.

 

BBT306: Molecular Genetics  (3 Credits)

Molecular genetics is an essential tool for studying biology. This course discusses in details the mechanisms underlying the storage, transmission and expression of heritable information in the genetic and chromosomal level of an organism. The topics that are included in this course are mutation and its repair; recombination and its role in DNA repair and genetic diversity; the concept of regulation of gene expression; developmental biology with model organism Drosophila melanogaster. At the end, this course discusses about the molecular basis of human genetics as well as epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression that is depended on the lifestyle and socio-economic environment of the individual. After completing the course, students will be able to critically evaluate experimental problems related to molecular genetics. They will also be aware of the social issues raised by the application of molecular genetics in modern society.

 

BBT307: Endocrinology (3 Credits)

Endocrinology is an advanced-level course for students with sound background in biology, physiology, and metabolism. The major target of this course is to acquire an understanding of current theories of mechanisms of endocrine functions and their implications for both basic knowledge and its application in modern medicine. The course covers the endocrine system and its hormonal products, including the characterization of hormone producing cells, synthesis and modification mechanisms of the hormones, release and transport of the hormones of different chemical nature, various hormone receptors and the mechanisms of hormone action, the effects of hormones on target cells, and physiological processes, as well as the diseases caused by inappropriate hormone functions. This course will cover the general principles of endocrinology, followed by the system-based endocrinology. A minor aim is to acclimatize students with present scientific literature and the use of the vast endocrine and biomedical resources on the internet, for research.

 

BBT401: Cell Biology   (3 Credits)

The cell is a fascinating, complex, and dynamic unit that is constantly interacting with the surrounding environment and making active decisions, by an enormous number of biochemical and biophysical process. A sound knowledge of cellular biochemistry is required to understand the diverse cellular components  (structure  and  function)  at  a  molecular  level  that  compose  multicellular organisms. Cellular Biochemistry forms the core of basic scientific investigations and current bio-medical research. After the completion of the course, the students will be able to apply the general principles taught in the course towards understanding an area of cell biology not covered in the course. Students will also be capable of analyze primary research literature in the field of cell biology after successful completion of this course. Furthermore, skills and knowledge from this course will be a great advantage for the students' future research carrier.

 

BIO103: Biology I  (3 Credits)                                                                        

The objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of the major integrating concepts of biological science. Principle emphasis of the course will be on studying living organisms and processes. Upon completion, students will have basics concepts on what is life and characteristics of life, Proper definition of biology and its areas, Cells and cell division, Macromolecules and Nutrition,  Biological levels of organization, Human physiology concentration on major systems and diseases. This course is appropriate for non science students and also for those who do not have biology as major.

 

BIO210: Advance Biology  (3 Credits)                                                                            

This course is designed to be a fundamental introduction to one of  the pivotal  fields inmodern biology.  Introduction to Molecular Biology is an attempt to explain the chemical processes that characterize “life.” It introduces biological macromolecules with their structure and function.  It also introduces DNA as the genetic blueprint for life and explores how it functions within the cell at a molecular level. It provides grounding in areas such as gene structure, function and biotechnology. This course also deals with gene expression and the methods in DNA cloning.

 

CHE101: General Chemistry   (3 Credits)                                                                   

This course covers fundamental principles of chemistry. Topics include measurement, atomic and molecular structure, periodicity, chemical reactions, chemical bonding, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, Chemical Equilibrium and Kinetics, gas laws and solutions. This course is appropriate as a basic chemistry course or as a science elective for students who have science, engineering, or mathematics majors. Upon completion, students will be able to- Define chemistry as the study of matter, can apply the basic concepts in their future studies and apply safe laboratory skills to solve problems in a cooperative environment.

 

MIC110/BBT101: Introduction to Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (3 Credits)         

This course introduces history, scope and future of Biochemistry and biotechnology. Students learn the basic logics of living organisms, the role of bio-molecules and their interrelationship. The course provides following introductory concepts: i) define and explain the basic concepts in biochemistry; ii) various biochemical pathways; iii) define the biological macromolecules and their subunits; iv) basic applied concepts in biochemistry to biotechnology; v) explain the underlying concepts in biotechnology; and vi) relate the biochemical properties and their principles as tools of biotechnology.

 

MIC313: Human Physiology  (3 Credits)                                                                         

Physiology is the study of how living organism functions. The main theme of human physiology is the molecular and cellular interaction to maintain the constant internal environment, i.e. homeostasis. This course commences with the principles of physiology, which is followed by an elaborate discussion of molecular-cellular physiology with a specific focus on neural and endocrine control and integration of homeostasis. Individual organ systems, including musculoskeletal, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems also given emphasis for a complete understanding that how human body functions.

Career

 

  • Who is a microbiologist?

Microbiologists investigate the fascinating world of organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye. Although known by many different titles, a microbiologist is a scientist who studies living organisms and infectious agents many of which can only be seen with a microscope. They also study the interaction of microorganisms with people. Everyday microbiologists around the world explore, investigate and discover how these organisms, called microbes exist and affect our lives.

 

  • Where does microbiologists work and with whom?

As a microbiologist, you will work with many other scientists and have a vast range of opportunities. Microbiologists work in almost every industry and have many different responsibilities. After being specialized in a area you can be a bacteriologists, biochemists, biotechnologists, cell biologists, geneticist, paracytologist, mycologists, virologists, a teacher or an industrialist.  This subject is related to almost all life science subjects as all researches are done with microorganisms.  Microbiologists have a high demand on Hospitals, Research laboratories, Food industries, Biotech companies, drug companies/pharmaceuticals.

 

  • What kinds of career paths are there?

BS/MS/PhD these degrees are required to reach the higher level positions. Achieving a doctoral degree is always enhancing the opportunities.

 

  • How the Department of Microbiology in North South University can help to build your career?

After completing the BS in this department, we offer MS in Biotechnology. We also appreciate students to go other Universities in home and abroad. 95% of our students who have completed BS with us are now doing their MS and some has started PhD in different Universities of US and European countries and they are doing well. Because of their performance, the rank of NSU is still in the top among the private Universities in Bangladesh. The kind support of the faculty members helps the students to reach the students to their dream.